The saxophone or just the "Sax" is one of the world’s most popular instruments. It was originally created in the 1840's as a means to bridge the gap between the two families of wind instruments. It succeeded at it has the flexibility of the woodwind and the power and projection of the brass.
Since its creation the saxophone has become a prevalent instrument in jazz and many popular forms of music. It's also commonly used in classical and modern orchestral music.
Although the saxophone is made from brass, it is technically a member of the woodwind family. It uses a single reed like a clarinet to create its tone and a fingering system based loosely on the design of the oboe.
The modern saxophone family consists of 4 primary instruments. The alto is the most common and considered the primary member of the sax family. The tenor and baritone provide the middle and bass voices and the soprano provides a higher voice. In addition to these four, other less common members of the saxophone family include the tiny sopranino, the very large bass, the super large contra-bass, and a few other less common variations.
The sound of the saxophone is the most highly diverse of the woodwind family. Depending on the player and the style, the sound of the saxophone has been described as, dark, bright, dry, piercing, dirty and even "laser focused". To this day saxophone players are still experimenting with the saxophone to create new sounds and effects
Due to its flexibility the sax has been used in almost every style of music since its creation. However it's most commonly known for its use in jazz and was one of the founding instruments in the early development of rock and roll